野猪Wild Boar

1. 分类Taxonomy




野猪Sus scrofaLinnaeus1758);英文名Wild BoarEurasian Wild PigRyukyu Islands Wild Pig

2. 保护级别Conservation Assessment


Beneficial, ecologically important and scientifically valuable wildlife under protection of China


Least Concerned species on IUCN Red List

3. 形态特征Physical Description


身体体长90-180厘米;肩高59-109 厘米;体重50-200千克



1. 成年野猪实物图(来源图行天下photophoto.cn

Figure 1.  Wild boar adult (origin: photophoto.cn)


2. 野猪幼仔实物图(作者:hxl623630553,来源昵图网www. nipic. com

Figure 2. Wild boar cub (Contributor: hxl623630553: origin: www. nipic. com)




3. 野猪头部图示鼻子(作者:Vilda - Rollin Verlinde,来源IUCN

Figure 3. The arched snout of wild boar (contributor: Vilda - Rollin Verlinde; origin: IUCN)



4. 野猪实体图示雄性獠牙(作者:edward1006,来源昵图网www. nipic. com

Figure 4. The tusks of male wild boar (contributor: edward1006; origin: www. nipic. com)

The wild boar is the ancestor of the domestic pig.

Body length: 90-180 cm; Shoulder height: 59-109 cm; Weight: 50-200 kg.

Boars are squat in body shape and brown or slightly black in color, and the color of their hair varies from region to region. The hair is coarse, and adults have a hair ridge running from the top of the head to the back of the neck (Fig. 1). Wild boars in the north have longer hair, while those in the tropics have less hair. Cubs have longitudinal stripes of brown and light yellow on their body surface (Fig. 2), which gradually disappear during the first year with age.

Wild boars have long head, small and erect ears. The snout protrudes like a cone, capped by a bare cartilaginous pad (the arched snout) (Fig. 3). The arched snout is so strong that it can be used for burrowing, pushing things weighing 40-50kg, or as a weapon. Wild boars have a very acute sense of smell, and they can tell the ripeness of food with their noses. They can even find a walnut buried under two meters of snow. Males can also use their sense of smell to locate females.

Two of the lower canine teeth of adult males are significantly elongated and extruded, forming tusks for defense and attack (Fig. 4).

4. 地理分布Geographic Range



5. 野猪世界范围分布(来源IUCN

Figure 5. Geographic range of wild boar around the world (origin: IUCN)




6. 中国野猪分布(作者阳光兽医,来源阳光畜牧网)

Figure 6. Geographic range of wild boar in China (contributor: yangguangshouyi; origin: ygsite.cn)


Worldwide, wild boars are widely distributed in Eurasia, islands close to the continent, and a small area of northwest Africa (Fig. 5), and have been artificially introduced to every continent except Antarctica. It is one of the most widely distributed of all land mammals in the world (Fig. 5).

It is widely distributed in China except in arid desert and plateau areas (Fig. 6).

5. 栖息环境Habitat


Wild boars are highly adaptable and can be found in almost all types of habitats, such as foreststhickets, grasslands, swamps. And they will invade agricultural land, and go deep into mountainous areas.

6. 生活习性Ecology

6.1 食物Food Habits



Wild boars are omnivores feeding on plant, fungi, seeds, and fruits, especially nuts, but also worms, snails, insects, small vertebrates, and carrion.  

Its flat, sensitive nose digs the surface of the soil to sniff out food. Wild boars can also be predators, sometimes they will attack snakes they encounter.  

6.2 社群Sociality



The wild boar is highly social artiodactyls. Although some males live alone, the wild boar usually gathers in small groups. For example, the wild boar in Hainan Island usually has 3-5 members foraging together and has different feeding sites within the same feeding range. They usually dont form large group.

To meet the needs of reproduction and foraging, wild boars will form groups of different sizes. Factors that affect wild boar clusters are climate, food, natural enemieshuman activities, and etc .

6.3 家域Home Range


野猪的平均领域面积为1.1- 3.9平方千米

Home range sizes of wild boars vary based on several factors, including the group size, availability of food resources, geographic distribution, and predators. Females tend to occupy smaller areas and stay within a family-wide coverage area to protect themselves and their young. Females can accept some overlap with other populations. Males tend to occupy larger areas. They can tolerate overlapping ranges with other males, but become more territorial during mating season as they prepare to compete for reproduction.

The average area of the wild boar ranges from 1.1 to 3.9 km2.

6.4 节律Rhythm


Wild boar are mainly active at sunset and night. They spend lots of time eating and sleeping.

6.5 移动Moving Method


Wild boars are good at swimming.

6.6 其它Others



Wild pigs like to wallow in muddy water.

The male also spends much time rubbing his sides against tree stumps, rocks, and hard riverbanks, thus grinding his skin into a hard protective layer that will protect him from serious injuries in a fight during mating seasons.

7. 繁殖Reproduction





Wild boars are polygamous. There are fights between males during mating seasons, and the winner takes over and gets the right to mate with the female.

The pregnancy period of wild boar is only 4 months, and litter size is 4-8. The female animals in the highly fertile age can reproduce twice a year, one in April and May in spring, and another in autumn.

Females usually search for a suitable place to build a "nursery nest" several days before they are due to give birth. The nursery nest is usually located in a hidden place, and they bring branches and soft grass to form a soft and comfortable nursery nest, so as to provide shelter for their newborns. The cubs are born with four teeth. After 2 weeks, they can bite and eat. The female leads the way, and her young follow close behind, searching for food in the trench she has dug. The female takes care of her young alone when they are young. The female in nursing is so aggressive that even the male is afraid of her. After a few weeks of cubs growth. The female's temper changed.

In the first year of life, cubs can gain 1, 000 times their original weight. This rate of growth is unusual in vertebrates.

8. 天敌及御敌策略Predators and Defense Strategies



The enemies of wild boar include wolves, bears, leopards, lynx, raptors and other wild animals. Wild boars are vigilant and fierce, and they can run fast. The body of the mane is warm "coat", but also alarm to warn the companion. Once in danger, they will immediately raise his head and suddenly grunt with their mane erecting. Even leopards are afraid to attack abruptly when confronted with wild boars. Most of the old and weak wild boar is the first choice of predators. The predation on wild boars  is an indispensable part of the natural adjustment of ecological balance. In fact, it is conducive to the optimization of wild boar population.

Some wild boars often gather near rivers, lakes and ponds to avoid being found by natural enemies, and sleep on sandbars in rivers. In this way, they can cross the river immediately in case of danger, leaving no smell and ensuring safety.

9. 生态系统中的作用Ecosystem Role


Wild boars in their range will use their snouts to find food, and have specific areas of digging. This behavior often occurs in wet areas and broad-leaved forests. The behavior of wild boar, such as rubbing trees and rolling on the ground, is beneficial to the dispersal of seeds of mosses and other plants. At the same time, the ground hogging of wild boars loosens the soil, allowing the growing buds to disperse and grow in different places, thus increasing the diversity of species in a particular area.

10. 保护现状Conservation Status


Wild boar is one of the important animal resources in China. Its numbers have been greatly reduced by hunting, but it is still widespread and common in some areas, even becoming agricultural pests. In Taiwan, wild boar hunting to prevent crop damage has severely reduced the local population. In 2000, the Seventh order of the National Forestry Administration listed the wild boar as one of the "National protected wild animals, which are beneficial and of important economic and scientific value".






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